By Asoke K. Talukder
The convergence of 2 robust technologies—wireless and the Internet—through IPv4/v6 protocol has resulted in emergence of next-generation networks (NGNs). NGN isn't any extra a community of mere desktops yet a hooked up conglomeration of assorted networks with assorted actual houses, with a plethora of community parts, in addition to numerous real-time multimedia functions. This booklet covers the whole gamut of expertise demanding situations from actual layer to software layer together with safeguard from either educational and business views.
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Additional info for Convergence Through All-IP Networks
In addition to the information provided by the multicast routing protocols, routers use the multicast scope to determine whether the multicast traffic can be forwarded. 1 gives scopes and their respective scope field values. 1 IPv6 multicast address scopes and their values Scope field values Scopes 1 (0001) Interface/node local 4 (0100) Admin local 2 (0010) 5 (0101) 8 (1000) E (1110) Link local Site local Organizational local Global Values 0, 3, and F are reserved, and values 6, 7, 9, A, B, C, and D are not assigned.
1 Multicast assignments In this section, we provide main multicast address assignments depending on the scope level of the multicast address. 2 enumerates IPv6 multicast address assignments based on the address scope. 2 (Continued) Multicast address Comp Assignments FF02:0:0:0:0:0:1:1 FF02::1:1 Link name FF02:0:0:0:0:0:1:2 FF02:0:0:0:0:0:FFXX:XXXX FF02::1:2 All DHCP agents Global scope: 1111 1111 0000 0001 FF01 Solicited node FF0E:0:0:0:0:0:0:101 FF0E::101 NTP server FF0E:0:0:0:0:0:0:103 FF0E::103 FF0E:0:0:0:0:0:0:102 FF0E::102 SGI dogfight Rwhod Abbreviations: DVMRP, distance vector multicast routing protocol; OSPFIGP, open shortest-path-first interior gateway protocol; DR, designated router; RIP, routing information protocol; EIGRP, enhanced interior gateway routing protocol; PIM, protocol-independent multicast; RSVP, resource reservation protocol; NTP, network time protocol; SGI, Silicon Graphics Inc.
The site topology is a collection of subnets within an organization’s site. The interface ID identifies a specific interface on a specific subnet within an organization’s site. 8 SLA ID 64-bits Interface Identifier Site Topology Three-level topology structure of global unicast address format. 7 Unique local IPv6 unicast address The unique local IPv6 unicast address (ULA) is defined in RFC 4193  intended for local communication usually inside a site. It has a globally unique prefix with the probability of uniqueness but is not expected to be routable on the global Internet.