Aspects of Knowing: Epistemological Essays (Perspectives on by Stephen Hetherington II

By Stephen Hetherington II

AcknowledgementsContributors1. advent: The artwork of designated epistemology Stephen HetheringtonPart A. Epistemology as scientific?2. an issue approximately epistemic dependenceTim Oakley3. Accounting for commitments: A priori wisdom, ontology, and logical entailmentsMichaelis Michael4. Epistemic bootstrappingPeter Forrest5. extra compliment for Moore's proofRoger White6. Lotteries and the shut Shave principleJohn Collins7. Skepticism, self-knowledge, and responsibilityDavid Macarthur8. an inexpensive contextualism (or, Austin reprised)A. B. Dickerson9. wondering contextualismBrian WeathersonPart B. figuring out knowledge?10. Truthmaking and the Gettier problemAdrian Heathcote11. is understanding having the precise to be sure?André Gallois12. wisdom by way of goal? at the risk of agent's knowledgeAnne Newstead13. Gettier's theoremJohn Bigelow14. wisdom that works: A story of 2 conceptual modelsStephen Hetherington

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Let us refrain from using the word “belief” for propositions believed, and reserve it for those psychological states that are assentings to the truth, or acceptances, of propositions. Sometimes we speak of a proposition being justified, making no reference to anyone believing it to be true. For example, we say that it is well justified that the Earth is (roughly) spherical. We might even say the same of a proposition without any presupposition that anyone actually does accept it. ) A claim that it is well justified that the world is spherical presumably means that there is much evidence available for this claim.

The justifiedness of a proposition is always in the end a matter of some person or persons, real or hypothetical, in real or supposed possession of certain evidence, being such that they are or would be justified in accepting the proposition. Russell’s reference, quoted in footnote 6, to “other beliefs”, any one of which constitutes our reason for a given belief, but which possibly “has been forgotten or has never consciously been present to our minds”, can presumably be seen to be speaking of propositions which support the one for which they are the reason, and which are such that, were we to accept them, we would be justified in doing so.

Pojman (1995, pp. 94–95); Post (1992); Feldman (2003, pp. ); Bonjour (2003); and Fumerton (2002, pp. ). Some mix their use of the terminology of inferential and non-inferential justification with other terms such as “based on”, “derived from”, “premise beliefs”, “conditionally justified beliefs”, etc. Interestingly, Russell (1967, p. 64) is more cautious than many others, qualifying his use of the terms “inference” and “reason” as follows: “Almost all our common beliefs are either inferred, or [my emphasis] capable of being inferred, from other beliefs which may be regarded as giving the reason for them.

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