# Antennas - Fundamentals, Design, Measurement by Lamont V. Blake

By Lamont V. Blake

This entire revision is a senior undergraduate or first-year graduate point textbook on antenna basics, layout, functionality research, and measurements. as well as its use as a proper path textbook, it's well-suited for pro education and self-study by way of working towards engineers, scientists, and technologists who wish to extend their wisdom of antennas. The booklet offers a huge insurance of antenna forms and phenomena, for operations at very low radio frequencies, in addition to frequencies as much as these of submillimeter wavelengths. in contrast to such a lot university-level antenna textbooks, interpreting it doesn't require past abilities in electromagnetic concept, subtle arithmetic, or machine programming.

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**Example text**

Refractive index), therefore, is given by Radio-Wave Optical Principles 17 n= c = v µε µ0 ε 0 (1–19) where m0 and e0 are the permeability and permittivity of a vacuum. 85 × 10−12 farad per meter. 85 × 10 ) −6 −12 3 × 108 meters per second as previously stated. , m = m0). Thus, for most lossless dielectrics, the index of refraction n is the ratio ε ε 0 , where e/e0 is the relative permittivity er. Therefore, from (1–16), one may usually write sin θ1 ε = r2 sin θ 2 ε r1 (1–20) To account for the conduction current and ohmic losses in a nonideal dielectric, er is expressed as e″r − je′r, where e′r is the relative permittivity related to the displacement current (Appendix A) and e″r is the relative permittivity related to the conduction current.

Now suppose, for example, that the two electric intensities are 2π r E1 (r , t ) = E01 sin 2π ft − + φ1 λ (1–29) 2π s E2 ( s, t ) = E02 sin 2π ft − + φ2 λ (1–30) in accordance with (1–2), except that the letters r and s are used here for distances measured along the propagation paths. This implies that the two waves may have traveled different distances before arriving at the point under consideration from the reference points at which r = 0 and s = 0 and at which the phase angles were f1 and f2.

At the higher frequencies, external noise is weaker and less limiting on reception performance. Then, without the limitations of receiving external noise, receiving antenna effectiveness is equally Environmental Wave-Propagation Effects 31 important as transmitting antenna effectiveness, in determining the overall performance of a complete communications system (see sec. 8). The reciprocal relationships between radiation and reception and between the transmitting and receiving properties of antennas, developed mathematically in advanced texts, are examples of the reciprocity principle or reciprocity theorem.