By Francisco Orrego Vicuna
The approach of foreign co-operation within the Antarctic has been evolving swiftly because the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959. Inextricably associated with this co-operation is the query of the rational administration of Antarctic assets. during this booklet Professor Orrego Vicuna examines extensive the felony framework - the Antarctic Treaty, sovereignty, jurisdiction and the legislations of the ocean - because it pertains to the exploitation of Antarctic minerals. this is often quick turning into a stay factor with the ever-growing capability for the advance of those assets. the 1st a part of the ebook examines the most features of the overseas criminal framework governing the co-operation of states in Antarctica, fairly in terms of source conservation. by contrast heritage, within the moment a part of the booklet, the regime for mineral assets is mentioned in adequate aspect to spot the fundamental concerns and pursuits that have to be accommodated with a purpose to reach a suitable conference. the ultimate a part of the e-book considers the real set of questions raised by means of the curiosity of the realm neighborhood at huge within the Antarctic: most importantly, the projects pertaining to a broader foreign participation lower than the auspices of the United countries.
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Additional resources for Antarctic Mineral Exploitation: The Emerging Legal Framework (Studies in Polar Research)
What had started as a 1970s issue of inner-city environmental concerns about the disproportionate distribution of environmental hazards among low-income communities transformed into allegations of intentional environmental racism. Although this definition of the problem prevailed throughout the 1980s, the issue did not make progress in the policy stream for a variety of reasons, most of them due to the Reagan administration's positions on traditional environmentalism and the civil rights movement.
As a result, the issue may gain the attention of national policymakers and move toward taking a place on the public agenda. Although it was not labeled as such, early stages of the environmental justice movement have origins in two events in 1967 and 1968. These events provided the backdrop for what was later to become a larger movement for environmental equality. In 1967, Houston was the site of a demonstration to protest the siting of a city-owned garbage dump in a largely African American community.
Many other measures besides race, class, and mobilization—as suggested by the environmental politics literature—could have been used as independent variables. We discuss these variables in Chapter 4. , state, county, city, ZIP code, SMSA), when what is needed is multiple analyses at several different levels. Finding evidence of environmental injustice at the county level says nothing about the relationship between toxic exposures, race, class, and mobilization at other levels of analysis, such as states and cities.