# Algebra and number theory. An integrated approach by Dixon M., Kurdachenko L., Subbotin I.

By Dixon M., Kurdachenko L., Subbotin I.

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**Example text**

The topic of Ethernet PONs is covered in great detail in Chapter 8. 14 IP-OVER-WDM CONVERGENCE Chapter 8: Ethernet Passive Optical Networks Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs), an emerging local subscriber access architecture that combines low-cost point-to-multipoint fiber infrastructure with inexpensive and proven Ethernet technology, are described in this chapter. EPONs use a single trunk fiber that extends from a central office to a passive optical splitter, which then fans out to multiple optical drop fibers connected to subscriber nodes.

The Internet design applies the end-to-end principle to deal with these problems. 1 Network Service Models One way of dealing with heterogeneity is to provide translation services between the heterogeneous entities when forwarding across them is desired. Examples of such design include multiprotocol bridges and multiprotocol routers. But this gets too complicated and does not allow scaling because every new entity that wishes to join the Internet will require changes in all existing infrastructure.

This process forms the basis of TCP’s congestion control mechanism. We now look at the details of the increase/decrease process for the window size. To implement TCP’s congestion control mechanism, the source and destinations have to maintain some additional variables: the congestion window, cwnd, and the threshold, ssthresh. The congestion window, together with the window size advertised by the receiver in the ‘‘receiver window size’’ field (which we denote rwin) in the TCP header, serve to limit the amount of unacknowledged data that the sender can transmit at any given point in time.